The Heart is not a Pump

AnthroMed

To any doctor trained in today’s medical schools, the idea that the heart may not be a pump would, at first sight, appear to be about as logi­cal as suggesting that the sun rises in the West or that water flows uphill. So strongly is the pump concept in­grained in the col­lective psyche that even trying to think otherwise is more than most people can man­age. Yet Rudolf Steiner, a man not given to unscien­tific or slipshod thinking, was quite clear on the matter and reiterated time and again that the heart is not a pump. “The blood drives the heart, not the heart the blood.”

Ralph Marinelli* and his co-workers published a paper refuting the generally-accepted pressure-propulsion premise. For a start, they draw atten­tion to the sheer volume of work which the heart would have to do if it were solely responsible for pumping inert blood through the vessels of the circula­tory system. Blood is five times as vis­cous as water. According to the propul­sion premise the heart would have to pump 8000 liters of blood a day in a body at rest and considerably more during ac­tivity, through millions of capillaries the diameters of which are sometimes smaller than the red blood cells them­selves – a huge task for a relatively small, muscular organ weighing only 300 grams.

Once the questions start being asked, the anomalies in currently accepted dogma become apparent. For instance, if blood were pumped under pressure out of the left ventricle into the aorta dur­ing systole, the pressure pulse would cause the aortic arch to try and straighten out, as happens in any Bourdon tube pressure gauge. In practice the exact oppo­site happens; the curve increases, indi­cating that the aorta is undergoing a nega­tive, rather than a positive, pressure.

Another paradoxical finding con­cerns the mechanics of fluid flow under pulsatile pressure. When a pressure pulse is applied to a viscous fluid in a closed vessel, the liquid initially resists move­ment through its own inertia. The pres­sure, therefore, peaks before the fluid velocity peaks. In the aorta, exactly the opposite happens where a peak flow markedly precedes peak pressure, a fact which was observed in 1860 by Chaveau and Lortet. So just what is going on in­side the circulation?

Misleading sketch of the heart by Leonardo do Vinci (1). The left ventricle wall is shown uniform in thickness as it would he in a pressure chamber. Actually the left ventricle wall thickness varies by about 1800% as Marinelli and his group measured in bovine hearts (2). The apex wall is so soft and weak that it can be pierced with the index finger. The peculiar variability in the ventricular wall thickness is not in keeping with the heart as pressure generator. However, Leonardo’s Notebooks has been used in most biology, physiology, and medical texts during the last few hundred  years as well as in most modern anatomy texts in the last decades (3). Thus, false sketches have served to bear witness to a false premise.

As Marinelli et al point out, the pres­sure-propulsion model of blood circula­tion rests on four major premises: (1) blood is naturally inert and must, there­fore, be forced to circulate; (2) there is a random mix of formed particles in the blood; (3) blood cells are under pressure at all times; (4) blood is amorphous and is forced to fill its vessels and take on their form.

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Dynamic Symmetry – Phylotaxis – Oleh Bodnar

The term dynamic symmetry was for the first time applied by the American architecture researcher J. Hambidge to a certain principle of proportioning in architecture . Later this term independently appeared in physics where it was introduced to describe physical processes that are characterized by invariants. Finally, in the given research the term dynamic symmetry is applied to regularity of natural form-shaping that in terms of origin also appears not to be connected with Hambidge’s idea, and, moreover, appearance of this term in physics. However, all the three variants are deeply interconnected in terms of their meaning which we are going to show.

At first, we point out strategic similarity of Hambidge’s and our researches. This is a well-known historical direction which in the field of architecture and art is motivated by the search for harmony regularities and, thus, is aimed at studying the objects of nature. Usually architects take interest in the structural regularities of natural form-shaping and, particularly, in the golden section and Fibonacci numbers which are regularities standing out by their intriguing role in architectural form-shaping. It is not accidentally that architects who do researches so frequently pay attention to botanical phenomenon phyllotaxis which is characterized by these regularities.

DYNAMIC SYMMETRY IN NATURE AND ARCHITECTURE

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Heather Stargazer – A New Dawn – Waking up to The Electric Universe

There are currents that flow between all facets of Science, History, Nature, and Humanity. These currents are the key to unlocking the next level of our collective understanding. Please join us on this journey as we wake up in real time to the Electric Universe.

Heather Stargazer is an author, artist, and Galaxy Class Stargazer who hales from somewhere near the 42nd parallel. Her work is the product of the inspirational spaces within which we all reside. Working with several dedicated members and organizations of the Electric Universe community, she has invited us to explore these new realms of electromagnetic possibilities and connect to a whole new understanding of what has come before us and where we are going in the future.

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