028 EU Meetup April 3, 2018


A Short History of Liesegang Rings

Tourist in The Wave, banded eroded Navajo sandstone rocks with Liesegang Bands, Liesegangen Rings, or Liesegang Rings, North Coyote Buttes, Paria Canyon, Vermillion Cliffs National Monument, Arizona, Utah, USA

Magnesium Deficiency Noted – Subclinical magnesium deficiency:
a principal driver of cardiovascular
disease and a public health crisis

Mar 28, 2018

Earth and the Sun share an electric circuit.

“Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it.”
— Charles Dudley Warner

The Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites were launched March 12, 2015 on a mission to study Earth’s electromagnetic fields. The MMS constellation, as well as the Geospace Electrodynamic Connections mission and the Magnetospheric Constellation mission, are part of a widespread, international consortium known as the Global Electric Circuit Project.

MMS, along with TIMED, Cluster, ARTEMIS, and other satellites, is analyzing the Sun’s influence on Earth’s thermosphere, about 100 kilometers in altitude. The solar wind of charged particles first interacts with atmospheric particles in the thermosphere. However, that region is not well understood, especially since TIMED detected a tenfold decline in the thermosphere’s temperature since 2002.

Temperatures in the thermosphere are the result of solar radiation. Atmospheric oxygen becomes ionized when it absorbs ultraviolet light, so it is electrically charged. That energy increases molecular motion, otherwise known as “heat”. Although a mercury thermometer would register temperatures below zero in the thermosphere, it can be over 1500 Celsius during solar maximum.

As written previously, there is an electric potential between the ground and the ionosphere, creating what is called the “fair weather field”, which generates two picoamps per each square meter of ground. Using the formula, Q = 4π R2 εo E = R2 Eo / k, when εo = permittivity of free space (8.85 x 10-12 F/m), it can be shown that Earth is negatively charged with almost 500,000 Coulomb.

Earth is part of a circuit in the Solar System, so the 22 year solar cycle influences Earth’s environment. Although solar energy varies over time, corresponding with sunspot cycles, it amounts to less than one-tenth of one percent. Electricity from space is injected into the thermosphere along massive Birkeland currents. Electric charge flow declines in amperage when the solar wind is at a minimum, which, in turn, decreases the strength of Earth’s magnetosphere. As it declines in strength, it is less able to deflect cosmic rays. Since cosmic rays are charge carriers, collisions between charged and neutral particles drag air molecules along with them, influencing low level cloud cover. More clouds reflect more radiation from the Sun back to space—clouds are white because they are acting like mirrors to all forms of visible light. More reflection means less solar energy, more cloud cover, and so on.

The Sun is returning to a more passive state, otherwise called, “solar minimum”. Changes in the correspondence between electric field strength, cosmic rays, Earth’s magnetosphere, cloud cover, and climate are continuing to be investigated. The Sun’s influence on Earth’s overall climate, as well as short term weather events, can no longer be ignored.

Stephen Smith

Spherical Harmony with Gary Doskas

Gary Doskas – Spherical Harmony

Gary Doskas graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec Canada in 1984. Has been working in the semiconductor industry for 27 years. Since April 2010, he has been researching (self-taught) structural shapes within a spherical geometric context. His book, ‘Sphere of Life VI: The Harmonic Relationships of Cones, Spheres, and Platonic Solids’, was published in Jan 2011.

Let’s assume some two-dimensional world has evolved to a point where it consists of an infinite number of two-dimensional shapes constructed from sheets of zero thickness. This world would consist of polygon and elliptical shapes of all sizes. How could this world evolve or transform itself into a three-dimensional world? I will conclude this book with postulating the following theory on the evolution of the polyconix.

What is remarkable about these geometric relationships is that they can be experi-enced through pure geometric construction using just a compass. This can easily be experienced by both the young and mathematically inexperienced people. Knowledge of spherical trigonometry is NOT required and only basic trigonometry is required to explore the more complex relationships in more detail.

This book has its roots in a previous publication of mine, Spherical Harmony: A Journey of Geometric Discovery. I will introduce the concept of spherical harmonics, but the main focus will be on fractional harmonics and their associated polygram, or star polygon. There exists a unique fractional harmonic of each of the infinite number of star polygons. Much has been written about the pentagram and the golden ratio that is embedded in its geometry. However, it was the heptagon and associated heptagram that really piqued my interest. So I decided to explore the heptagram since I didn’t know much about its geometric properties or characteristics and there wasn’t much written about them either. The prime number seven has a special place in the ancient world and was referred to as the virgin number and was the most sacred number in many religions. some amazing ratios of proportion.

Instead of taking the classical approach of breaking down larger objects (molecules/atoms and protons/neutrons/electrons) into their smaller constituent parts (quarks, leptons, and bosons), I will take a different approach to describe the origins of the universe based on a simple geometric model. I will start with defining a particle with the smallest radius imaginable and describe their geometric evolution to larger particles.


L0002031 Optic chiasm, human, 19th century.
Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images
Human optic chiasm showing decussation of fibres of optic nerves.
Optic chiasm, human, showing decussation of fibres of optic nerves
Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
Gudden, Bernhard Aloys von
Published: 1874
Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Twitter Wisdom 🙂

Dunbar’s number

Dunning–Kruger effect

Liesegang Rings Plasmogenia Kelemen

Psychology: The Study of the Soul?

Bergamot Wild Bee Balm Seeds – Monarda Fistulosa